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印度网友:为什么中国的发展速度比印度快得多
发布时间:2020-05-04 20:55:44   浏览:
译文内容:
印度论坛有网友问,为什么中国的发展速度比印度快得多,一般像这种问题,阿三还是非常理性,他们很清楚种姓制度、民主腐败等问题,导致印度效率远没有中国这么高...当然他们还是会认为他们那所谓的”自由“更重要...
网友评论:
Anand Indiran
Here are some key reasons why China is ahead of India.China and India were not equal when it started. Indian median poverty was very less than China. India had many ultra rich so statistical average gives different picture that both were at same level.In India, there were costal pockets who had access to education because British wanted slaves who can help in trade. Other areas were almost illiterate. China was more homogeneous and was comparatively easier to develop.Life expectancy was 38 !! This sums up the state of a nation.Social fabric of India was completely decimated by British while China retained its culture. In India, rot had set in mentally, people became losers and accepted it as their fate.British divided India into religions which didn''''t exist before British came. Then they wedged the divide deeper extrapolating false narratives of caste oppression to such an extent that people believed it as gospel truth and started practising it. However such divisions by British created rift in society and mistrust is society. It''''s affect is being felt even today.India has many regional languages. Hindi is spoken by less than 25 ℅. China is more homogeneous.In short we did not start at same level. India was hopelessly backward and divided society.China opened up at the right time 20 years ahead of India by choice. India opened up not by choice but compulsion.
以下是中国领先于印度的一些关键原因。
刚开始的时候,中国和印度的比较就是不平等的。印度的贫困中位数远低于中国。印度有很多超级富豪,所以统计平均值给出了两国处于同一水平的结果。在印度,有一些沿海地区的人有机会接受教育,因为英国人想要拥有可以在贸易中提供帮助的奴隶。而其他地区几乎都是文盲。中国比较单一,发展相对容易。平均寿命是38岁!这个数字概括了一个国家的状况。
 
印度的社会结构被英国完全摧毁,而中国保留了自己的文化。在印度,腐败已经融入了骨子里,人们变成了失败者,甘于接受命运。英国人把印度人分成在英国人来之前不存在的教派。然后他们将分歧进一步加深,以至于人们相信这是福音真理,并开始实践它。英国的这种分化造成了社会的裂痕和不信任,这就是社会。它的影响甚至在今天仍然存在。
印度有许多地方语言。印地语的使用者不超过25%。中国更加同质化。
 
简而言之,我们的起点不同,印度是一个令人绝望的落后和分裂的社会。中国选择在正确的时间开放,领先印度20年。印度的开放不是出于自愿,而是出于强迫。印度仍然是一个分裂的社会,大多数人都觉得自己在某种程度上是受害者。
失败者无法建立一个成功的国家。新一代的印度人有一些新鲜血液和雄心壮志。希望他们能让印度重现昔日的辉煌。
 
Aria Diehl
I''''ll break down this answer into various points, in order to explain why.1.Brain drain.In India it is required to know English to a fairly high degree in order to go to higher education, (something I find rather disgusting), as a result it is much easier for Indians especially those with the money. To leave India for a western country where they see that they can have a better life. This is catastrophic to India as all the good qualified people are leaving and can''''t help the economy. China being a country where everything is in Chinese doesn''''t have nearly as big a problem with this.2.Language barriers.India is made up of many languages. Several provinces have their own official language. While in china everyone can more or less understand Mandarin fluently. In India no language holds that spot. This causes a major problem. As even business inside the country can pose a language barrier. India needs a unifying language (not English for the reason stated above). This would be vital for India''''s economic growth.3.Government.China has a oneparty state. The model they use is also extremely efficient, compared to almost every other government in the worlds. As a result it was able to rise incredibly fast. India does not have this uber efficient government style. It uses a government style from a foreign country. One that was designed in a country with a completely different situation from India. As a result it doesn''''t work as efficiently as it should. 
 
Venu Gopal
Even after getting Independence earlier than china , India don’t stand with allies country in terms of economical development due to following reasons.Democratic government- China has adopted constitution where only one party can contest election(i.e communist party). If anyone want to fight election he must be nominated from communist party. India has adopted democratic system where multiparty can contest election. Due to democracy its not possible to implement law instantly. Passing a bill and implementing a law takes almost one year whereas china can make and implement law instantly.Civic Sense-Indian people don’t have Civic sense. They don’t consider public property their own. In foreign country people consider public property alike their private property. A nation cannot be develop until and unless it’s citizen will hold accountability towards his duty.Corruption- The major obstacle in India’s development in corruption. Does you ever went into any government office , your file will not move from desk until you pay bribe to employee . It applies to government banking sector also. The government body is full of corruption from lower to higher level.Law and administration- India is homeland of more than 1.35 billion people. Indian government don’t recruit police,bureaucrat,judge to maintain law and administration. The politician always wants to live in limelight of media and they spent large part of taxpayers money in election and campaigning for votes. If all is well in society then who will give “value” to politician.
印度虽然比中国早获得独立,但由于以下原因,在经济发展方面与中国并不在一条水平线上。
民主政府——中国已经通过了宪法。如果有人想参加选举,他必须得到提名。印度采用了多党竞选的民主制度。由于民主,不可能立即实施法律。通过一项法案和实施一项法律几乎需要一年的时间,而中国可以立即制定和实施法律。
 
公民意识——印度人没有公民意识。他们不认为公共财产是他们自己的的财产。在外国,没人把公共财产看作是私人财产。一个国家的发展离不开它的公民对自己的职责负责。
腐败——腐败是印度发展的主要障碍。你是否曾经走进任何一个政府部门,除非你行贿,否则你的档案不会被人审阅。它也适用于政府银行部门。政府机构从下到上充斥着腐败。
 
法律和行政——印度是13.5亿人口的国家。印度政府不招募警察、官僚、法官来维护法律和行政。这些政客总是想成为媒体关注的焦点,他们把纳税人的大部分钱花在选举和竞选活动上了。如果社会上一切正常,那么这些政客如何展现自己的“价值”呢?
 
David Ellsworth
It looks clear to me why China develops so quickly, but it is usually beyond the comprehension of people who believe that multiple party systems are the only valid form of democracy. The delusion of opposing party systems that ensure only privileged people can be elected will some day be eliminated by a common understanding that democracy can be free of partisan ideologies.The fact is that China is close to a single party democracy which eliminates the sense that opposition is a necessary part of government. The people of China are less divided by party allegiances and more easily agree with community development. Most of the reasons for development are established through community consultation long before it is a government decision. The process of community involvement is ongoing and there are yearly national conferences to ensure the process is well know.Contrary to this system of social awareness the so called multiparty forms of government dwell continuously on divisive purposes and can never reach agreement. They have no institutions for common agreement. The political ideological conflict has become so big a part of social life that even law and order has become impossible to trust. The western style democracies have become so immersed in conflict that peace and security is neigh impossible, let alone the development of social needs. Such countries appear to be wealthy but the facts of lawlessness, drug addiction and poverty are hidden behind the media images of success.China is having a lot of difficulty trying to avoid drowning in these illusions but so far is having pretty good success.India on the other hand has never overcome the cast system that adds a layer of divisiveness to the system of party conflict. It is unlikely the country can agree to development plans on the scale of time and social unity required for such success.
在我看来,中国为什么发展得如此之快很明显,但这那些相信多党制是唯一有效的民主形式的人通常是无法理解的..........
与这种社会意识体系相反,所谓的多党政府形式持续地出现分歧,永远无法达成一致。他们没有达成共识的机构。政治意识形态冲突已经成为社会生活的重要组成部分,甚至连法律和秩序都无法信任。西方式的民主国家已经变得如此沉浸于冲突之中,以至于几乎不可能和平与安全,更不用说社会需求的发展了。
这些国家看起来很富有,但是无法无天、吸毒成瘾和贫穷的事实却隐藏在媒体塑造的成功的形象背后。中国在试图避免陷入这些幻想方面遇到了很多困难,但迄今为止取得了相当大的成功。另一方面,印度从未克服为种族制度,这种制度给政党冲突制度增加了一层分歧。这个国家不太可能同意这种需要时间和社会团结规模的发展计划。
 
Vivek Saxena
Why does China have a gdp of 9.24 trillion as compared to India''''s 1.87?why did China grow faster in these 20 years? More pro business government ("to be rich is glorious" ),Better economic policy 
为什么中国的GDP是9.24万亿而印度是1.87万亿?为什么中国在这20年里增长得更快呢?
他们有更加亲商的政府(“致富光荣”),更有利于企业的政府带来了更好的经济政策,更好的经济政策带来了更多的外国投资,更好的基础设施是政府投资的结果,更好的基础设施的结果是带来了更高的生产率。通过减少监管、建立七个经济特区等措施,他们进一步改善了商业环境。换句话说,这是一个美妙的良性循环!
上世纪90年代初,由于受到1991年国际收支危机的影响,印度在这方面几乎没有采取任何措施。中国在1980年就开始了这一进程,并且或多或少一直保持着这一进程。积极的一面是,印度可以(也应该)效仿这种成功。
 
Mayank Shetty
The main reason china developed at a much faster rate than india is because of its political background and communism.The government of china owns all the land in China. As all the land in china is owned by the chinese government the infrastructure developed rapidly over a very short span of time.During 1980s the chinese government elimated restrictions and reduced taxes on manufacturing which is the reason why china is the global leader in manufacturing whereas india has a lot of restrictions and guidelines over business and trade.Only recently 100 % FDI was allowed in india.India is slowly moving in the direction to become a manufacturing giant(obviously china is the star player) with its make in india movement and invest in india movement.China is politically immature but economically stable and improving whereas india is economically immature but politically stable.Indian economy was not allowed to florish due to government control on the indian market.That is why china has developed at a faster rate.
 
中国之所以比印度发展得快得多,主要是因为中国的背景。中国拥有中国所有的土地。由于中国所有的土地都属于政府所有,基础设施在短时间内得到了迅速的发展。
在20世纪80年代,中国取消了对制造业的限制,对制造业减税,这就是为什么中国是全球制造业的领导者,而印度在商业和贸易方面有很多限制和指导方针。直到最近,印度才允许外国公司全资投资。通过“印度制造”运动和“投资印度”运动,印度正缓慢地朝着成为制造业巨头的方向发展(显然中国是明星玩家)。印度的经济不成熟,但政治稳定。由于政府对印度市场的控制,印度经济不允许繁荣。这就是中国发展速度加快的原因。
 
Srikrishna Chaitanya
i would say corruption is not main reason the real reason. why we are still poor is:lack of urbanisation.the caste” division has undermined the cohesive social fabric of India. Lower caste people have traditionally been excluded from the mainstream society governed by the so-called upper caste communities. They have historically lived isolated in the periphery of the villages and townships and subsisted doing only those tasks considered “unfit” for the other caste and still lower caste people in india are struggling to come up so before debating to ban reservation system.lack of education:we did not invest as much money on education like chinese did education is the future of india.
 
我认为腐败不是主要原因。我们仍然贫穷的原因是,缺乏城市化:种姓制度”的分化已经破坏了印度的凝聚力。传统上,低种姓群体被排斥在所谓的高种姓群体统治的主流社会之外。他们历来与世隔绝地生活在村庄和乡镇的边缘,只从事那些被认为“不适合”其他种姓的工作,而且印度的低种姓的人们在为废除保留制度而努力。缺乏教育:我们没有像中国人那样在教育上投入那么多资金,教育是印度的未来。
 
Sameer Bakshi
What made China develop so fast compared to India?here are many reasons. 1. The governance in China is streamlined the policies doesn''''t change with ruling party.2. Effecient use of its demographic dividend.Chinese invested in creating labour intensive jobs by providing cheap and skilled labour. It developed various programmes for skill building of labour.3. Development of rural areas by forming TVE''''s( Township and Village Enterprise).4. Giving full thrust of MSME''''s( Micro Small & medium enterprises).5.Huge investment in Infrastructure. 6. Taking the menace of corruption stringently.These steps were the 1st step which made china factory of the world. In later stages the investment in technological advancement and arms have made china a world leader.
 
是什么让中国比印度发展得更快?原因有很多。
1.中国精简政策......
2.有效使用人口红利。中国通过提供廉价和熟练的劳动力来投资创造劳动密集型的工作岗位。它制定了各种培养劳动者技能的方案。
3.构建乡镇企业促进农村发展。
 
4.充分发挥微型中小企业的推动作用。
5.对基础设施的巨额投资。
6.严厉打击腐败。
这些步骤是使中国成为世界工厂的第一步。在以后的阶段,对技术和武器的投资使中国成为世界领导者。
 
William Hou
I cannot believe nobody has given the CORRECT answer to this question.India was dominated by foreigners for over 1000 years before it became independent in 1947: the Indians were first dominated by the Muslims for over 600 years, and then by the British for another 200 years. During the long period of foreign domination, Indians were not allowed to participate in the administration of the country.After getting independent in 1947, Indians have become all on their own. But they had never been the administrators of a country, and the country-administrating art/knowledge cannot be mastered over night. Without that kind of knowledge, the Indian government is unable to deal with many problems properly.On the contrary, China has the longest continuous history in the world. The Chinese are masters of political art. And then, in 1978, the new government of China set science & technology as the #1 Productive Force.We all know that with science & technology, the West became the world dominating power.So China, with its world best political art and the world best productive force, science & technology, has outperformed the West within only 40 years — in 2014, China took over the US to become the world #1 as for purchasing power.That’s the reason why India has been falling behind China, maybe forever.
 
我不敢相信没有人给出了这个问题的正确答案。
印度在1947年独立之前被外国人统治了1000多年:印度人最初被穆斯林统治了600多年,然后又被英国人统治了200多年。在长期的外国统治时期,印度人不被允许参与国家的行政管理。1947年独立后,印度人完全独立了。但是他们从来没有管理过一个国家,国家管理艺术/知识不可能一蹴而就。没有这种知识,印度政府就无法妥善处理许多问题。
相反,中国拥有世界上持续时间最长的历史。中国人是政治艺术的大师。1978年,中国将科技确立为第一生产力。我们都知道,随着科技的发展,西方成为了世界的主导力量。因此,拥有世界上最好的政治艺术和世界上最好的生产力、科技的中国,在短短40年内就超过了西方。2014年,中国超过美国,成为世界上购买力第一的国家。这就是为什么印度一直落后于中国,或许会永远落后的原因。
 
Vikrant Shitole
1.In any sector, or an industry if you are a producer, you get to define the price point of produce, whereas if you are a trader or a distributor of that produce you can only retain a small percentage margin on the Sale price. If you are a specialized into a “Services”, then most probably you will come into picture. If you see composition of today’s Indian economy or any of the biggest Indian companies (barring the top industrial conglomerates) they fall under later two categories. Even the famed Outsourcing IT & ITES sector is essentially a Garage industry where we (Indians) do Maintenance, Repair of global product based software companies. Also in this chain, being a “INNOVATION” driven matters a lot and helps one climb up the value chain faster, As for as India goes, the INNOVATION ladder been slow, fragmented and yet to achieve full potential. Whereas in China, the process was simple, invite worlds best into your country and incentivize them to set up base in your country. Over the years, you learn from them and master the art, till you start doing it better and then directly compete with them.2. There are many answers which talk about the transition from an agrarian economy to Industrialized one and then to services led economy, one step at a time. India’s was a pseudo jump sprint from agriculture dominated one to a service based economy, skipping the manufacturing in between. Now a simple fact, manufacturing alone creates a huge volumes of low skilled jobs which maybe executed by even a less educated person, whereas a services based job especially in crucial sectors like IT/ITES, Tech of Tourism requires high skill, high knowledge of a subject and basic education. Now in a country of one billion, do the math, of course not everyone is expected to have degrees, higher education and required skillset. That’s where development of manufacturing helps. And if you need a strong manufacturing base in your country, Infrastructure automatically becomes a high priority as you need to ship the goods produced faster, safely, effectively, and at low costs..3. Investments : Countries like US and Japan should take a huge credit in development of robust Financial systems in China. Their companies were pioneers in opening up Chinese economy with huge influx of capital and helping China transition from a closed economy to a free market economy. Their early invested dollars helped Chinese Govt set up manufacturing facilities and improve the country’s infrastructure in process creating Jobs and initiating an economic turnaround. In return Chinese govt promised foreign investors huge local Chinese market, abundant cheap labour, and Tax sops, Tax benefits with SEZ’s. and suddenly it made an economic sense to manufacture goods in China.since 1980’s has never looked back, almost everything right from Toys, Shaving kits, electronics, high end tech all had “Made in China” label. It made China, World’s manufacturer. This directly means “Made in China” goods exported world wide. Automatically helping an agriculture based Chinese economy to transition into Export oriented manufacturing. As of today, China is worlds no.1 exporter, in other language, they have largest deposits of foreign currency in the world. So they not only control rates for major currencies in the world, but since so many major countries like EU, Australia, Canada, US, UK are dependent on China for trade, they almost control economies of the dependent countries, which gives China a huge economic clout..eg. even for an economic rival India, China is the biggest trading partner, with Balance of Trade heavily favoring China. This is where I feel India lost heavily.
 
1.在任何行业,如果你是一个生产者,你可以定义产品的价格,而如果你是一个交易者或者分销商,你只能保留销售价格的一小部分利润。如果你是一个专业“服务者”,那么最有可能你将不能进入人们的视野。
如果你看看今天印度经济的构成或者任何一家最大的印度公司(除了最大的工业集团),它们都属于后两类。甚至著名的IT外包行业本质上也是一个车库行业,在那里我们(印度人)只是为全球基于产品的软件公司进行维护和修理。
 
在这个链条中,“创新”驱动的重要性很大,有助于人们更快地向价值链上游攀升。对于印度来说,创新的阶梯缓慢、分散,尚未充分发挥潜力。而在中国,这个过程很简单,他们邀请世界上最好的人进入你的国家,并激励他们在你的国家建立基地。多年来,中国从他们那里学习并掌握了这门艺术,在做得更好之后,就可以直接与他们竞争。
 
2.关于从农业经济到工业化经济再到服务业主导的经济的转变,有很多答案,但都需要一步一个脚印。印度的经济增长是从农业主导型经济向服务型经济的跳跃式增长,跳过了两者之间的制造业。一个简单的事实是,仅制造业就创造了大量的低技能工作,甚至可能由一个受教育程度较低的人来完成,而服务业的工作,尤其是在IT/ITES这样的关键部门需要高技能,高学历和基础教育。
做一下数学计算,在一个有十亿人口的国家,当然不是每个人都能有学位,高等教育和必要的技能。这就是制造业发展的帮助所在。如果你需要在你的国家建立一个强大的制造基地,那基础设施建设就自动拥有了一个高优先级,因为你需要以更快、安全、有效和低成本的方式运输生产的产品。
 
3.投资:像美国和日本这样的国家在中国健全的金融体系的发展中获得了巨大的信任。他们的公司是开放中国经济的先锋,大量的资本流入中国,并帮助中国从封闭经济向自由市场经济过渡。
他们早期的投资帮助中国建立了制造设施,改善了国家的基础设施,创造了就业机会,开始了经济转型。作为回报,中国向外国投资者承诺了巨大的中国本土市场、充足的廉价劳动力、税收优惠和经济特区的税收优惠。突然之间,在中国制造商品变得更有经济意义。
 
几乎所有的东西,从玩具,剃须套件,到电子产品,高端技术都有“中国制造”的标签。它让中国成为了世界制造商。这直接意味着“中国制造”的商品出口到世界各地。自动帮助以农业为基础的中国经济向出口导向型制造业过渡。时至今日,中国是世界第一大出口国,换句话说,他们拥有世界上最多的外汇储备。因此,他们不仅控制着世界主要货币的汇率,而且由于欧盟、澳大利亚、加拿大、美国、英国等许多主要国家的贸易都依赖于中国,他们几乎控制了这些依赖国的经济,这给了中国巨大的经济影响力。即使对于经济上的竞争对手印度来说,中国也是最大的贸易伙伴,贸易平衡对中国极为有利。这就是我觉得印度损失惨重的地方。
 
Billi Bob
China has developed faster then india because there’s equal number of men and women working there. One would be amazed to see that the ratio in which you find men and women working there would be shocking for someone from india.We see women even making night shifts and walking streets freely going and coming back from ….on the contrary while out of home we have not even given women basic sense of security here.on the other hand unfortunately here we have totally domesticated(controlled ) women in such a way that 50% of our population is sitting at home doing nothing (almost hostage like situation).we can never catchup with them on development until 50% of our working assets(women) arguably more talented then men are not working….this considering our huge population from small town to even smaller town where women are still treated as belongings of a man and considering our socio-economic situation is highly unlikely to improve for atleast 35–50 years.
 
中国比印度发展得更快,因为在那里工作的男女人数相等。你会惊讶地发现,在那里工作的男女比例会让印度人感到震惊。我们看到妇女甚至上夜班,在街上自由地走来走去......
相反,在外面我们甚至没有给予妇女基本的安全感。另一方面,不幸的是,在这里,我们有完全驯化(控制)的妇女,以至于50%的人坐在家里无所事事(几乎像人质一样)。我们永远不可能在发展上赶上他们,除非我们50%的工作者(女性)比男性更有才能。
考虑到我们庞大的人口,从小城镇到更小的城镇,妇女仍然被视为男人的财产,考虑到我们的社会经济状况,至少在35-50年内都不可能得到改善。
 
Quora User
I have seen many answers in economic aspects, and many of them menrioned the infrastructure. I am here trying to look into the quetion in geological and historical point of view.in geology, China is composed by many blocks, and the interaction with those block create mountains, faults and earthQuakes. Two main rivers crossing China from west to east, but they are very unstable with a lot of channel changing, created many floods and killed many people in the history.So comparatively India actually have better geological environment for industry than China. But if you look into details and history. The geological environment in China has been intensively optimized!!China has a history of united empire for many thousand of years. in order to get the emperor assigned officers, in place as soon as possible, Chinese has been building roads for many thousands of years, and damaging of those roads are considered to be rebellion. True it is difficult to build road in mountains, but if you have a existing roads for many centuries, it is much easier and safer.For rivers, the Chinese civilization starts with hydraulic construction. For over 4000 years of hydraulic construction, the monster of rivers were tamed and provide great economic values.Actually, construction in China is simpler than you think, you just need do modern modification on the existing ones, you do not have to build it from the wild, you do not need to worry about it would be destroyed by geological hazards, because it stands there for many centuries already. The same with bridge designs, you just need to look into the local history records and you find the perfect model.Sadly, though as long history as China have, India do not have long history as united empire, constructions are destroyed, cities are ruined and records are losing. There is not much you can learn from the past, so you need to build a nation from all the beginning.
 
在经济方面,我已经看到了许多答案,其中许多都涉及到基础设施。我想从地质学和历史学的角度来研究这个问题。
在地质学上,中国由许多板块组成,这些板块的相互作用产生了山脉、断层和地震。两条主要河流自西向东横穿中国,但它们非常不稳定,河道变化频繁,历史上造成了许多洪水影响。
印度是一个大的板块,比中国平坦,它有大河,但比中国稳定。因此,相比较而言,印度的工业地质环境实际上比中国更好。但如果你仔细观察细节和历史。中国的地质环境得到了极大的优化!
 
中国有着几千年的统一帝国的历史。为了让皇帝派来的官员尽快到位,数千年来中国一直在修路,破坏道路被认为是叛乱。在山区修路很困难,但是如果你有一条已经存在了几个世纪的道路,那就会更容易,更安全。
对于河流来说,中华文明始于水利建设。经过4000多年的水利建设,这条巨大的河流被驯服了,具有了巨大的经济价值。
 
实际上,中国的建筑比你想象的要简单,你只需要对现有的建筑进行现代化改造,你不需要从野外重新建造它,你不需要担心它会被地质灾害破坏,因为它已经屹立了许多世纪。与桥梁设计一样,你只需要查阅当地的历史记录,就可以找到完美的模型。
遗憾的是,中国有着悠久的历史,但印度却没有长久统一帝国的历史,建筑被摧毁,城市被摧毁,记录丢失。你无法从过去学到太多东西,所以你需要从零开始建立一个国家。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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